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Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult Saanen goats
  1. A. A. Leroux, DVM, MSc1,
  2. M. L. Moonen, MD, PhD2,
  3. F. Farnir, PhD3,
  4. C. F. Sandersen, DVM, PhD, DipECEIM1,
  5. S. Deleuze, DVM, PhD, DipECAR1,
  6. A. Salciccia, DVM, MSc1 and
  7. H. Amory, DVM, PhD, DipECEIM1
  1. Equine Clinic, Department of Companion Animals and Equids, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Boulevard de Colonster 20, Bât B41, 4000 Liege – Sart Tilman, Belgium
  2. Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Liege, Medicine Faculty, University of Liege, avenue de l'Hôpital 13, Bât B35, 4000 Liege – Sart Tilman, Belgium
  3. Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Animal Selection, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Boulevard de Colonster 20, Bât B43, 4000 Liege – Sart Tilman, Belgium
  1. E-mail for correspondence aurelia.leroux{at}ulg.ac.be

Echocardiography has become a routine non-invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of the present study was to test the inter-day repeatability and to establish the reference values of two-dimensional (2D-) and time-motion (M-) mode echocardiographic variables in healthy adult Saanen goats. Six goats were investigated three times by the same observer at one-day interval using a standardised 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic protocol. The intra-observer inter-day repeatability was tested using analysis of variance, calculation of the coefficient of variation and confidence intervals. A single echocardiographic examination was performed in six other goats, and values obtained in the 12 goats were used to establish the 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult female Saanen goats. Statistical analysis revealed a good inter-day repeatability of the echocardiographic cardiac measurements. Echocardiographic reference values obtained in healthy adult Saanen goats seemed slightly higher than those reported in healthy Swedish domestic goats and were similar to those reported in healthy adult sheep.

  • Accepted October 26, 2011.

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  • Accepted October 26, 2011.
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  • Provenance not commissioned; externally peer reviewed

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