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Assessment of consciousness during propofol anaesthesia in pigs
  1. P. Llonch, DVM, MSc1,2,
  2. A. Andaluz, DVM, MSc, PhD2,
  3. P. Rodríguez, DVM, MSc1,
  4. A. Dalmau1,
  5. E. W. Jensen, PhD3,
  6. X. Manteca, DVM, MSc, PhD2 and
  7. A. Velarde, DVM, MSc, PhD1
  1. IRTA, Animal Welfare Subprogram, Finca Camps i Armet, Monells, 17121, Girona, Spain
  2. UAB, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Campus Bellaterra, edifici V. Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193, Barcelona, Spain
  3. Morpheus Medical, Edifici Barcelona Activa, Llacuna 162, Barcelona, Spain
  1. Correspondence to A Velarde, e-mail: antonio.velarde{at}

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ANAESTHESIA is required to allow major operative procedures to be undertaken without the animal experiencing pain. In some cases, the assessment of unconsciousness relies on behavioural patterns and physiological reflexes, which need to be validated according to the brain activity. A wide variety of methods have been used to monitorise brain activity in animals (Haga and others 2002, Martín-Cancho and others 2006, Rodríguez and others 2008). However, most of them have been carried out when animals were restrained. The Index of Consciousness (IoC, IoC-view; Morpheus Medical) is a monitor based on wireless technology that can assess brain activity in non-restraining conditions. The IoC analyses the raw EEG giving a unitless scale from 0 (null brain activity) to 99 (awake) (Revuelta and others 2008). Burst suppression (BS%), which appears when the brain cortex is deeply depressed (Haga and others 2002), is also assessed. The IoC-view monitor is currently used in human beings (Revuelta and others 2008) and has also been used in veterinary medicine to successfully assess the depth of anaesthesia in dogs (Ribeiro and others 2009) and rabbits (Silva and others 2011). Propofol is an injectable anaesthetic agent that can be used both for anaesthetic induction and maintenance (Glen and Hunter 1984, Watkins and others 1987) and has been used in some experiments …

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