The historical and clinical findings in 200 referred cases of equine sinus disease were reviewed retrospectively. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to detect significant differences in historical or clinical features between various categories of sinus disease. The causes of sinus disease were classified as subacute primary (less than two months duration) (n=52), chronic primary (more than two months duration) (n=37), dental (n=40), sinus cyst (n=26), traumatic (n=13) or mycotic sinusitis (n=7), sinus neoplasia (n=10), dental-related oromaxillary fistula (n=8) and intrasinus progressive ethmoid haematoma (n=7). The majority of sinus disorders were of chronic duration at the time of referral and most (including 97 per cent of chronic primary sinusitis cases) had not responded to previous antibiotic therapy and/or sinus lavage in some cases. Clinical signs included unilateral nasal discharge in most cases, including purulent or mucopurulent discharge in all horses with primary, dental and mycotic sinusitis. Haemorrhagic nasal discharge was a feature of traumatic sinusitis and intrasinus progressive ethmoid haematomas. Firm facial swellings and nasal airflow obstruction were features of sinus cysts and neoplasms. Ipsilateral lymphadenitis was a more prominent feature of sinus disease with active infections such as primary, dental or mycotic sinusitis.
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