Fluprostenol (ICI 81,008) is a 16-aryloxyprostaglandin, structurally related to PGF2alpha. It is a highly potent luteolytic agent, being effective in thoroughbred mares at a single intramuscular dose of 250 mug and having a wide margin of safety in this species. A total of 941 mares have been treated with fluprostenol in an international trial, for various forms of infertility associated with abnormal persistence of luteal function. These mares were selected for treatment on the basis of clinical examination and 760 (approximately 80 per cent) responded fluprostenol by showing oestrus within seven days of the injection. The fertility of the oestrus following prostaglandin-induced luteal regression has been consistently shown to be normal. A number of causes have been identified for the lack of response in the remaining 20 per cent of animals.