Chronic renal disease is an important clinical problem in dogs. Until recently, diffuse renal fibrosis with chronic renal failure has been attributed mainly to chronic interstitial nephritis, itself considered to be the end stage of acute leptospiral nephritis. A clinical and morphological analysis of eight cases of chronic glomerulonephritis is described and a comparison made with eight dogs suffering from severe chronic interstitial nephritis. Clinically and biochemically, the two diseases were virtually indistinguishable, both resulting in uraemia. A possible distinguishing feature of chronic interstitial nephritis was the anaemia which was absent from chronic glomerulonephritis cases. Morphologically, the two diseases appeared to be distinguishable on three grounds; the pattern and severity of fibrosis, the degree of fibrin deposition and the immunofluorescence findings.