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Infection route is key to testing the effectiveness of swine flu vaccines

J. D. Hemmink, S. B. Morgan, M. Aramouni, H. Everett, F. J. Salguero, L. Canini and others

INFLUENZA A virus (IAV) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause substantial mortality and be rapidly disseminated through avian (ducks and chickens) and mammalian (human and pig) populations. Experimentally, influenza virus is delivered to pigs intranasally, by intratracheal instillation or by aerosol, but there is little data comparing the outcome of different methods. In order to determine the most relevant model for assessment of IAV pathogenesis, transmission, vaccine efficacy or therapeutic intervention, this study evaluated which method of experimental delivery of swine IAV to the upper or lower respiratory tract, by intranasal or aerosol method, best represented natural infection.

Viral shedding pattern, cytokine responses in nasal swabs and immune responses following delivery of low or high dose swine influenza H1N1 virus to the respiratory tract of pigs intranasally or by aerosol were evaluated and compared to those induced in naturally infected contact pigs.

Results indicated that viral multiplication and the immune response in naturally infected animals differs from those of animals experimentally infected by different doses and methods. …

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