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COLPOSUSPENSION surgery has been the mainstay of surgical treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) in dogs since the 1980s and the success of this procedure is reported as 56 per cent complete continence, 34 per cent improved continence, 10 per cent no improvement (Holt 1990).
Artificial urethral sphincters were developed for the veterinary market …
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