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Wildlife surveillance
Fatal spirocercosis in a free-ranging red fox
  1. Federico Morandi1,
  2. Gabriele Angelico2,
  3. Ranieri Verin3 and
  4. Stefano Gavaudan3
  1. 1Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Piazza del Forno, 1 – 62039, Visso Macerata, Italy
  2. 2Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Umbria e Marche, Via Cupa di Posatora, 3 – 60100, Ancona, Italy
  3. 3School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Neston, Cheshire CH64 7TE
  1. e-mail: federico.morandi{at}sibillini.net

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Spirocerca lupi is a nematode that localises in the oesophageal and gastric wall of Canidae and other carnivores. It is found worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The lifecycle of S lupi involves intermediate (coprophagous beetles) and paratenic hosts (poultry, wild birds, lizards, rodents, hedgehogs and rabbits), infected with larvae (L3) and a final host (carnivore). In domestic dogs, in which it is certainly underestimated, …

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