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Evaluation of the specificity of intradermal tuberculin and serological tests for diagnosis of tuberculosis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) herds under field conditions in Peru
  1. J. Bezos, PhD, DVM1,2,
  2. B. Romero, PhD, DVM2,
  3. A. Delgado, PhD, DVM3,
  4. J. Álvarez, PhD, DVM4,
  5. C. Casal, PhD2,
  6. Á. Venteo, PhD, BSc5,
  7. I. González, PhD5,
  8. L. Domínguez, PhD, DVM2,6 and
  9. L. de Juan, PhD, DVM2,6
  1. 1MAEVA SERVET SL., C/ de la Fragua 3, Alameda del Valle, Madrid 28749, Spain
  2. 2Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria Veterinaria (VISAVET). Universidad Complutense, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n,
    Madrid 28040, Spain
  3. 3Clínica de Animales Mayores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
  4. 4Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS), Ctra. Colmenar Viejo, Km. 9.100, Madrid 28034, Spain
  5. 5INGENASA, C/ Hermanos García Noblejas 39, Madrid 28037, Spain
  6. 6Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria,
    Universidad Complutense,
    Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n,
    Madrid 28040, Spain
  1. E-mail for correspondence: jbezosga{at}

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Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in camelids is still a challenge mainly due to the lack of standardised diagnostic assays and the limitations regarding sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the current diagnostic techniques (Álvarez and others 2012). Accurate diagnosis of the disease in camelids is of increasing importance, especially in Europe, where New World camelid (NWC) populations are growing (Barlow and others 1999, D'Alterio and others 2006, Twomey and others 2012). Furthermore, camelids can be reservoirs of TB infection for other domestic and wild animals and human beings and, therefore, control of disease in these species is crucial for animal and public health (Zanolari and others 2009, Twomey and others 2010). Although there are no official data on the prevalence of TB in NWCs, several outbreaks have been reported in recent years in different European countries (Connolly and others 2008, Zanolari and others 2009, Garcia-Bocanegra and others 2010, Twomey and others 2010, Twomey and others 2012, Bezos and others 2013). Likewise, no information on the prevalence of TB in camelids in South American countries is available since no previous studies describing outbreaks in these countries have been published. Still, the import of infected animals from Peru was suggested as the most probable cause in an outbreak detected in Europe (Veen and others 1991). In this context, the control of TB in countries with a high population of camelids and from which NWCs are exported such as Bolivia, Chile or Peru is essential.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the Sp of the intradermal tuberculin test and a novel serological assay for diagnosis of TB in two different TB-free herds of alpacas and llamas, respectively, located in different regions in Peru.

Two farmers from Peru voluntarily accepted to test their animals for …

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