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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive, irreversible disease resulting in the loss of secretory and excretory function of the kidney, due to the destruction of the nephrons (Jacob and others 2002). Early detection of CKD is important for the treatment and management of dogs with CKD. The current tests available for diagnosing CKD in small animals, involve detecting proteinuria and the lack in ability to concentrate urine (Jacob and others 2005). There have been several renal biomarkers proposed (eg, KIM-1, cystatin C, IL-18) for the early detection of renal injuries (Soni and others 2010, Devarajan 2011). The list has increased gradually and is being used routinely in human beings (Dieterle and others 2010).
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) belongs to the lipocalin family of proteins. It is known by other names, such as: NL (neutrophil lipocalin), lipocalin, oncogene protein 24p3 or uterocalin (Hraba-Renevery and others 1986, Kjeldsen and others 1993, Garay-Rojas and others 1996, Supavekin and others 2003). NGAL has been identified as a potential marker for acute renal injury in human beings where it is highly elevated due to epithelial damage (Kjeldsen and others 1993, Uttenthal 2005, Zappitelli and others 2007, Bennettand others 2008, Nelson and others 2008). This has been reported in patients with acute renal injury, occurring between 24 and 48 hours earlier than elevated creatinine levels (Mishra and others 2005, Dent and others 2007, Nickolas and others 2008). Recent veterinary studies reported a direct correlation between urinary NGAL concentrations and the degree of renal damage (Nabity and others 2012, Kai and others 2013, Lee and others 2012). Kai and others (2013). Induced acute renal injury in beagle dogs with gentamycin and found a marked increase in urine NGAL levels. Furthermore, Lee and others (2012) noted that …
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