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Poultry diseases
Rice hulls as a possible source of Clostridium botulinum type C spores for poultry
  1. L. Bano1⇑,
  2. I. Drigo1,
  3. E. Tonon1,
  4. F. Agnoletti1,
  5. D. Giovanardi2 and
  6. E. Morandini3
  1. 1Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Vicolo Mazzini 4, 31020 Villorba, Treviso, Italy
  2. 2Laboratorio Tre Valli, Viale Apollinare Veronesi 5, 37132 San Michele Extra, Verona, Italy
  3. 3Agricola Tre Valli, Via Valpantena 18/G, 37138, Quinto di Valpantena, Verona, Italy
  1. e-mail: lbano{at}

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BOTULISM is a neuroparalytic disease caused by the action of the botulinal neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by the anaerobic spore-forming bacillus Clostridium botulinum. BoNTs are classified into seven serotypes, A through G, based on their antigenic properties (Gimenez 1976).

C botulinum type C is the most common serotype involved in avian botulism outbreaks, although types A, D and E have rarely been reported in birds (Kaldhusdal and Jordan 2008). During the winter of 2009 to 2010, two different farms located in the north of Italy, housing 120,000 and 46,000 broiler chickens aged 20 and 46 days, respectively, experienced recurrent botulism outbreaks. In July 2011, two turkey …

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