Article Text

Short communication
Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations and ratio in healthy adult dogs
  1. A. Galán-Rodríguez, DVM, PhD1,2,
  2. B. E. Carletti, DVM1,
  3. J. Morgaz-Rodríguez, DVM, PhD1,2,
  4. A. Gamito-Gómez, DVM1,2,
  5. P. Muñoz-Rascón, DVM1,2 and
  6. E. M. Martín-Suárez, DVM, PhD1,2
  1. 1Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, 14014, Spain
  2. 2Teaching Veterinary Hospital, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, 14014, Spain
  1. E-mail for correspondence: pv2garoa{at}

Statistics from

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is an important tool for the diagnostic work-up of many neurological disorders in humans and animals (Platt and Olby 2008). Alterations in CSF levels of different neurotransmitters, enzymes and neuronal metabolic substrates have been found in different diseases affecting the CNS in dogs and cats (Di Terlizzi and Platt 2006). CSF lactate, pyruvate and lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) have been proposed as biomarkers of brain energy metabolism (BEM) in humans (Parnetti and others 2000, Benoist and others 2003, Djukic and others 2012) and dogs (Sugi and others 1975, Pugliese and others 2005). Changes in concentration of these metabolites have been observed when oxidative damage, brain hypoxia or mitochondrial damage is present (Sugi and others 1975, Benoist and others 2003, Pugliese and others 2005). In humans, CSF levels of non-specific neuronal metabolic substrates, such as pyruvate and lactate, are increased in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia (Lying-Tunell and others 1981, Parnetti and others 2000). Similarly, increases in lactate and pyruvate concentration have been described in dogs with severe canine cognitive dysfunction, which could be a reflection of altered BEM (Pugliese and others 2005). In human beings, CSF lactate levels have been reported in several CNS diseases like infectious meningitis and lymphoma (Cunha 2011). In dogs, changes in CSF lactate levels have been associated with intervertebral disk herniation (Löbert and others 2003, Witsberger and others 2012) and cerebral ischaemia or infarction (Yin and others 2002). To date, some studies have evaluated BEM biomarkers in different pathologic processes affecting the CNS, however, reference ranges for lactate, pyruvate and L/P ratio in adult healthy dogs are limited and variable (Sugi and others 1975, Löbert and others 2003, Pugliese and others 2005). The aim of this study is to contribute to establish …

View Full Text

Request permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.