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Developing less invasive surgery to help manage reproduction in reptiles
  1. Zdenek Knotek, DVM, PhD, DiplECZM (herpetology)
  1. Avian and Exotic Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno Palackeho trida 1-2, CZ 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
  1. e-mail: knotekz{at}

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A RESULT of the increasing significance and improvement of veterinary care for reptiles, kept both by professional zoological gardens and private breeders, is that veterinary surgeons who specialise in reptile reproduction have to meet more and more demanding requirements. These are comparable with the demands placed on human physicians or veterinarians caring for dogs and cats. This is illustrated by the development of diagnostic techniques that use various modifications of classical rigid endoscopic methods. These methods have made it possible for veterinarians to develop reliable and safe techniques of biopsy of organs such as the liver and kidneys (Hernandez-Divers and others 2005). The samples taken in this way and processed by histological techniques can be used to assess the extent and form of damage of vital organs and make a correct diagnosis and objective prognosis.

To be most useful, clinical diagnostics must be reliable and fast. At the same time, it is increasingly important for clinical diagnosticians to acquire skills in the area of modern therapeutic endoscopic techniques as well as surgical procedures. As well as being used for diagnosis, rigid endoscopy for use of less invasive interventions in reptiles has come to the fore in recent years (Divers 2010). Over time, there have been …

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