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Distribution of West Nile virus vector, Culex modestus, in England
  1. Jolyon M. Medlock and
  2. Alexander G. C. Vaux
  1. Medical Entomology and Zoonoses Ecology group, MRA/BS, Emergency Response Department, Health Protection Agency, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JG
  1. e-mail: jolyon.medlock{at}

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Culex modestus is considered the main bridge vector of West Nile virus in continental Europe, responsible for transmitting virus from birds to humans (Balenghein and others 2008). Historically in the UK, this species was only reported in and around Portsmouth in 1944, with no further records (Marshall 1945). Consequently, assessments of public health risk from West Nile virus (WNV) in the UK were based upon the assumption that this key bridge …

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