This paper reviews the equine granulosa cell tumour (GCT) and describes the clinicopathological features, treatment and outcome in seven cases of GCT in mares. Mares were presented with unilateral ovarian enlargement during the 2007 to 2010 breeding seasons. The mean (sd) age of the mares was 11.7 (5.96) years. Three mares were multiparous barren, three were nulliparous and one was primigravida. Behaviour at presentation was 57 per cent anoestrus, 28 per cent with stallion-like behaviour and 14 per cent with persistent oestrus. All mares had unilateral ovarian enlargement. Six non-pregnant mares had a small and inactive contralateral ovary; the pregnant mare had a single small corpus luteum on the contralateral ovary and was at three-and-a-half months' gestation. Enlarged ovaries measured 7 cm to an estimated 30 cm in diameter. 28 per cent had a multicystic ultrasound appearance, 57 per cent were dense structures and 14 per cent were of mixed appearance. Mean concentrations of progesterone were <1 ng/ml, oestrone sulphate 3.06 (2.32) ng/ml and testosterone 0.58 (0.64) nmol/l in non-pregnant mares. Inhibin was elevated in all non-pregnant cases at 7.6 (12.45) ng/ml. The pregnant mare had concentrations of progesterone 2.5 ng/ml, oestrone sulphate 81.0 ng/ml, testosterone 1.9 nmol/l and inhibin 1.31 ng/ml. Mares demonstrating stallion-like behaviour had a significantly higher (P<0.001) testosterone concentration (1.85 [0.07] nmol/l) than those that did not (0.34 [0.26] nmol/l). Three mares underwent unilateral ovariectomy and resumed cyclic ovarian activity within nine months of surgery.
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