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Use of transcutaneous external pacing during transvenous pacemaker implantation in dogs
  1. N. Noomanová, MVDr1,
  2. M. Perego, DMV1,
  3. A. Perini, DMV, PhD1 and
  4. R. A. Santilli, DMV, DECVIM-CA (Cardiology)1
  1. 1Clinica Veterinaria Malpensa, Via Marconi 27, 21017 Samarate (VA), Italy
  1. E-mail for correspondence: noomanova{at}


The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the utility of transcutaneous external pacing (TEP) during transvenous pacemaker implantation in dogs. Eighty-two pacemakers were implanted in 77 dogs because of third-degree atrioventricular block (AVB) (58 cases; 70.7 per cent), sinus node dysfunction (SND) (nine cases; 11.0 per cent), high-grade seconddegree AVB (six cases; 7.3 per cent), persistent atrial standstill (PAS) (four cases; 4.9 per cent), post-radiofrequency catheter ablation of the bundle of His (four cases; 4.9 per cent) and vasovagal syncope with atrial fibrillation (one case; 1.2 per cent). TEP was initiated during general anaesthesia after the onset of asystole or profound bradycardia, and stopped when permanent pacing was started. The use of TEP was necessary in 27 cases: 19 cases of third-degree AVB, five of SND, two of PAS and one of vasovagal syncope. External pacing was successful in all but two dogs.

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