The influence of a modified open lung concept (mOLC) on pulmonary and cardiovascular function during total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in horses was evaluated. Forty-two warmblood horses (American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1 to 2), scheduled for elective surgery (mean [sd] weight 526  kg, age 6.4 [5.4] years) were randomly divided into three groups: ventilation with mOLC, intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV), and spontaneous breathing. Premedication (0.8 mg/kg xylazine), induction (2.2 mg/kg ketamine and 0.05 mg/kg diazepam) and maintenance of anaesthesia with TIVA (1.4 mg/kg/hour xylazine, 5.6 mg/kg/hour ketamine and 131.1 mg/kg/hour guaifenesin), with inhalation of 35 per cent oxygen in air, were identical in all horses. Heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), pH, and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (paO2) and carbon dioxide (paCO2) were evaluated. Data were collected every 10 minutes from 20 to 90 minutes anaesthesia time. Factorial analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were used for statistical analysis (a=5 per cent). Horses in the mOLC-ventilated group had an overall significantly higher paO2 (16.9 [1.0] v 11.7 [1.34] v 10.5 [0.57] kPa) and lower MAP (93.1 [5.47] v 107.1 [6.99] v 101.2 [5.45] mmHg) than the IPPV and spontaneously breathing groups, respectively.
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