Forty buffaloes with traumatic pericarditis were examined to characterise the ultrasonographic findings in buffaloes with traumatic pericarditis, determine the extent of the lesions and assess the prognosis. The most noticeable clinical presentations were presternal oedema (73 per cent) and jugular and mammary vein distension (88 per cent). Laboratory findings included neutrophilic leucocytosis, elevated total protein concentration, hypoalbuminaemia, hypergammaglobulinaemia and increased concentration of free fatty acids. Ultrasonographically, fluid in the pericardium appeared as either mild or massive anechoic accumulations containing fibrin threads or were imaged as homogenous, echogenic pericardial effusions. Moderate to severe corrugation of the reticular wall was observed. Deposits of fibrinous tissue interspersed with fluid pockets were seen between the reticulum, dorsal ruminal sac and diaphragm. Perireticular and mediastinal abscesses were imaged and appeared as echogenic lines with anechoic, echogenic, homogenous or heterogeneous contents. Additional ultrasonographic findings included hepatomegaly, dilation of the caudal vena cava, hepatic and portal veins, ascites, echogenic pleural effusions and vegetations of the tricuspid, mitral and pulmonary valves. The ultrasonographic findings were confirmed at postmortem examination.
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