Article Text

Use of a tetanus toxoid marker to allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated poultry without affecting the efficacy of a H5N1 avian influenza virus vaccine
  1. C. M. James-Berry, BSc, PhD1,
  2. D. Middleton, BVSc, MVSc, PhD2,
  3. J. P. Mansfield, BSc1,
  4. S. G. Fenwick, BVMS, MSc, PhD1 and
  5. T. M. Ellis, BVSc, MVSc, PhD1
  1. Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Perth 6150, Western Australia, Australia
  2. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australian Animal Health Laboratories, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
  1. E-mail for correspondence c.berry{at}

Tetanus toxoid (TT) was assessed as a positive marker for avian influenza (AI) virus vaccination in chickens, in a vaccination and challenge study. Chickens were vaccinated twice with inactivated AI H5N2 virus vaccine, and then challenged three weeks later with highly pathogenic AI H5N1 virus. Vaccinated chickens were compared with other groups that were either sham-vaccinated or vaccinated with virus with the TT marker. All sham-vaccinated chickens died by 36 hours postinfection, whereas all vaccinated chickens, with or without the TT marker, were protected from morbidity and mortality following exposure to the challenge virus. Serological testing for H5-specific antibodies identified anamnestic responses to H5 in some of the vaccinated birds, indicating active virus infection.

Statistics from


  • Provenance not commissioned; externally peer reviewed

Request permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.