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Effect of the addition of tramadol to a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam and xylazine for anaesthesia of miniature pigs
  1. D-Z. Lu, PhD1,
  2. H-G. Fan, PhD1,
  3. H-B. Wang, PhD1,
  4. K. Hu, MS1,
  5. J-T. Zhang, PhD1 and
  6. S-M. Yu, MS1
  1. 1 Department of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 59 Mucai Street, Gongbin Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150030, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Wang, e-mail: neau1940{at}


This study investigated the effects of a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam and xylazine plus tramadol (TZXT) and compared the efficacy of this combination with that of tiletaminezolazepam and xylazine (TZX) for providing anaesthesia in Chinese experimental miniature pigs. Fourteen healthy, eight-month-old miniature pigs of both sexes were immobilised with TZXT or TZX on two different occasions. The pigs' immobilisation and analgesia scores and baseline physiological parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, non-invasive systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures, arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation and rectal temperature) were determined before and five, 10, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 minutes after the administration of TZXT or TZX. Pigs in both groups became laterally recumbent within three minutes. Some physiological parameters were changed after administration of the drug combinations, but they remained within biologically acceptable limits and were not significantly different between the two treatments. The use of TZXT resulted in better induction time and quality of recovery compared with TZX, with higher scores for sedation, analgesia, muscle relaxation, posture and auditory response. The animals were much calmer during recovery after TZXT immobilisation.

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