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Minimally invasive surgical tube cystotomy for treating obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants with an intact urinary bladder
  1. M. R. Fazili, PhD1,
  2. H. U. Malik, PhD2,
  3. H. K. Bhattacharyya, PhD1,
  4. B. A. Buchoo, PhD1,
  5. B. A. Moulvi, PhD3 and
  6. D. M. Makhdoomi, PhD1
  1. 1Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex
  2. 2Division of Clinical Medicine
  3. 3Division of Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shuhama- Alusteng, Srinagar 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  1. E-mail for correspondence: fazili_mr{at}


Ten young, male, entire small ruminants (seven kids and three lambs) with obstructive urolithiasis, which were presented within three days of complete blockage and before rupture of the urinary bladder and urethra, underwent a minimally invasive surgical tube cystotomy through the left paralumbar fossa. The catheter was placed in the bladder lumen through a metallic cannula and fixed to the skin with a stay suture. Surgery was performed with the animal standing (six cases) or in right lateral recumbency (four cases) on the day of presentation. All animals were discharged the same day. Eight animals urinated normally within a mean of seven days (range four to 10 days). One animal had a blockage of urine flow as a result of kinking of the catheter on the third postoperative day, and in another the catheter collapsed on the fourth postoperative day. These were managed by a second, conventional surgical tube cystotomy. No recurrence of the condition was noticed in any of the animals during a six-month follow-up period.

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