Groups of four two-week-old puppies were administered serial dilutions of an intranasal vaccine containing live Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza virus vaccine and housed individually in isolator cages. Three vaccinated groups and one unvaccinated control group were exposed to virulent B bronchiseptica four weeks after vaccination and evaluated. Nasal swabs for bacterial culture and sera for agglutination tests were taken from all the dogs every week for four weeks. The bacteria isolated were identified by growth on specific agar and by specific PCR to distinguish between vaccine and challenge strains. The vaccine strain persisted in the nasal cavity after vaccination but no adverse reactions were observed. Serum agglutination titres were raised in the vaccinated dogs at challenge. Vaccine strains were not isolated after the challenge from most of the vaccinated dogs. The challenge strain was shed in the dogs vaccinated with the lowest dose (106·0 cfu/dose) for two to three weeks but the other vaccinated groups (107·0 and 108·0 cfu/dose) shed the challenge strain transiently or not at all. Only the group vaccinated with 106·0 cfu/dose exhibited clinical signs after challenge.
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