Renal dysplasia and nephrosclerosis in six calves, which were aged three to six months and from different farms in western Scotland and north-west England, was characterised clinically by stunted growth and renal failure with uraemia. Affected animals were depressed and one case exhibited severe neurological signs. Reduced erythrocyte counts were evident in three of four animals from which blood samples were submitted for haematology. At postmortem examination, the kidneys were bilaterally small, pale and firm, with marked fibrosis and sometimes contraction of the capsule. Histologically, affected calves had disorganised atrophic glomeruli, dilatation of tubules, loss of nephrons, areas of undifferentiated mesenchyme and diffuse interstitial and periglomerular fibrosis. There was minimal inflammation. Renal dysplasia and nephrosclerosis is a form of juvenile nephropathy of unknown aetiology that occurs sporadically in calves in the UK.