Proteinuria and systemic hypertension are well recognised risk factors in chronic renal failure (crf). They are consequences of renal disease but also lead to a further loss of functional kidney tissue. The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between proteinuria, systemic hypertension and glomerular filtration rate (gfr) in dogs with naturally occurring renal and non-renal diseases, and to determine whether proteinuria and hypertension were associated with shorter survival times in dogs with crf. Measurements of exogenous creatinine plasma clearance (ecpc), urine protein:creatinine ratio (upc), and Doppler sonographic measurements of systolic blood pressure (sbp) were made in 60 dogs with various diseases. There was a weak but significant inverse correlation between upc and ecpc, a significant inverse correlation between sbp and ecpc and a weak but significant positive correlation between upc and sbp. Some of the dogs with crf were proteinuric and almost all were hypertensive. Neoplasia was commonly associated with proteinuria in the dogs with a normal ecpc. crf was the most common cause leading to hypertension. In the dogs with crf, hypertension and marked proteinuria were associated with significantly shorter survival times.