The first outbreak of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in camels in France was reported on a farm in the Aveyron Department. Five camels were imported from the Canary Islands to the farm in early July 2006, and trypanosomes were observed on a stained blood smear from one of them, which died in October. On further investigations, trypanosomes were observed in the blood of five camels, three of them indigenous to the farm and two that had been imported. On the basis of microscopical examination (morphological criteria and measurements) and serological results based on the card agglutination T evansi test and pcr typing, the parasites were identified as T evansi. After treatment with melarsomine, the infected camels rapidly became negative by parasitological tests and were negative two to four months later by serological tests. The parasite was probably transmitted by tabanids and Stomoxys calcitrans, which were abundant in July to September 2006. No parasites were observed in other animals on the farm or on neighbouring farms, but some of the sheep on these farms were positive by pcr or serology.