Between April 2003 and March 2005, 113 outbreaks of histomonosis were recorded in standard turkey farms in France, and 15 cases were recorded in turkey breeding centres. Most of the cases were in north-west France, the principal farming area for turkeys. The majority of the cases occurred during the hottest months, from April to September. Large numbers of cases occurred among birds from four to eight weeks of age, but there were some cases in three-week-old birds and some in birds up to 17 weeks of age. In most of the standard turkey flocks the mortality was less than 10 per cent, but it was above 30 per cent in nearly 20 per cent of the outbreaks. In the breeding flocks, the average mortality was 60·2 per cent. The size of the flocks, the sex of the birds and the age at which the first clinical signs appeared did not seem to influence the mortality.