The objective of this study was to find serum indicators of gastric ulcers in foals. By using two-dimensional electrophoresis of serum proteins, three distinct spots were detected in samples from foals with gastric ulcers detected endoscopically. One of them appeared with high frequency and was identified by partial digestion with trypsin and subsequent nano-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoesi-ms/ms) analysis as an α1-antitrypsin. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against human α1-antitrypsin, revealed at least two bands, of molecular weight 58 kDa and 55 kDa, in the sera. The 55 kDa band was detected in 44 of 47 serum samples from foals with gastric ulcers, but in only three of 22 serum samples from healthy foals.