Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone were measured in 25 cats with untreated diabetes mellitus (11 of which were used for follow-up measurements, one to three, four to eight, nine to 12 and 13 to 16 weeks after their treatment with insulin began), 14 diabetic cats that had previously been treated with insulin, and seven diabetic cats that also had hypersomatotropism, two of which had not previously been treated with insulin; 18 healthy cats were used as controls. In the untreated diabetic cats the concentration of IGF-1 ranged from 13·0 to 433·0 ng/ml (median 170·5 ng/ml), which was significantly lower than the concentrations in the control cats (196·0 to 791·0 ng/ml, median 452·0 ng/ml). Their IGF-1 concentrations increased significantly when they were treated with insulin and after four to eight weeks were not different from those in the control cats. In the diabetic cats that had previously been treated with insulin the IGF-1 concentrations were 33·0 to 476·0 ng/ml (median 316·0 ng/ml), which was significantly lower than the concentrations in the control cats, but significantly higher than in the untreated diabetic cats. The IGF-1 concentrations in the two previously untreated diabetic cats with hypersomatotropism were low and low-normal but increased markedly after treatment with insulin. In the five previously treated cats with hypersomatotropism the concentration of IGF-1 was above the normal range. The concentrations of growth hormone in the treated and untreated diabetic cats without hypersomatotropisms were not significantly different and there was an overlap in its concentrations in the diabetic cats with and without hypersomatotropism.