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Echocardiographic and Doppler echocardiographic findings in 11 wolves (Canis lupus)
  1. C. Guglielmini, DVM1,
  2. F. Rocconi, DVM1,
  3. L. Brugnola, DVM2,
  4. F. Valerio, DVM1,
  5. L. Mattei, BSc2 and
  6. A. Boari, DVM1
  1. 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, University of Teramo, Viale Crispi 212, I-64020 Teramo, Italy
  2. 2National Wildlife Refuge of Popoli (PE), Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Viale della Riviera 299, I-65123 Pescara, Italy


Two-dimensional real-time, M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic measurements were made in 11 adult wolves (Canis lupus) anaesthetised with an intramuscular combination of medetomidine, ketamine, butorphanol and acepromazine followed by isoflurane in oxygen. M-mode measurements of the left ventricle, B-mode measurements of the left atrium and aorta, systolic indices, and Doppler measurements of aortic and pulmonary blood outflow, and of mitral and tricuspid blood inflow, were recorded. The values obtained were compared with those reported for dogs of similar bodyweight and body type. The diastolic measurements of the cardiac chambers and walls were similar to those reported for healthy, conscious dogs, but the use of anaesthesia probably resulted in the markedly different systolic cardiac measurements, systolic indices and Doppler blood flow velocities observed in the wolves. Mild mitral regurgitation, probably due to mitral endocardiosis, was observed in one wolf, and trivial functional mitral insufficiency was observed in five others.

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