Three flat-coated retrievers with a regenerative anaemia were examined. They were hypoproteinaemic suggesting that the anaemia might be due to blood loss, but it was not possible to identify a site of haemorrhage. All three had splenomegaly with splenic abnormalities apparent on ultrasonography. Ultimately all three animals were shown to have a histiocytic sarcoma involving the spleen and other tissues. A fourth flat-coated retriever with anaemia, hypoproteinaemia and an abdominal mass was also diagnosed with a histiocytic sarcoma of the spleen following splenectomy. It is postulated that the dogs’ anaemia was due to erythrophagocytosis, either directly by neoplastic cells or by reactive macrophages.