To assess whether the rates of antimicrobial susceptibility in bacteria isolated from the urine of dogs with urinary tract infections are similar to those of bacteria isolated from bitches with pyometra, the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from the two groups were determined and compared. The samples were collected in Sweden between April 2002 and March 2003, and potential changes over time were assessed by comparing the results with corresponding data from 1991 to 1993. Among 80 isolates of E coli from cases of pyometra, the proportions that were resistant to the antimicrobials used in canine practice were generally low (ampicillin 10 per cent, enrofloxacin 4 per cent, gentamicin 0 per cent, streptomycin 5 per cent, sulfamethoxazole 8 per cent, tetracycline 4 per cent and trimethoprim 2 per cent) and similar to the proportions reported previously. Significantly lower proportions of resistance were recorded among the pyometra isolates than among 92 isolates from urine samples submitted by animal hospitals to ampicillin (P=0·04), streptomycin (P=0·002) and tetracycline (P=0·03), but there were no differences between the pyometra isolates and 113 isolates from urine samples submitted by animal clinics.
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