Twenty-one young calves with maternally derived antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were divided into three groups of seven, each group balanced for BRSV antibody titre. The calves had no evidence of previous exposure to BRSV. The calves in one group were given a single dose of a monovalent modified live BRSV vaccine; the calves in the second group were given a single dose of an inactivated combined BRSV, parainfluenza virus type 3, Mannheimia haemolytica vaccine and the calves in the third group were left as unvaccinated controls. Three weeks after the single doses of vaccine, all the calves were challenged with BRSV. The clinical signs of disease were mild, and virus excretion was limited to two calves in the group given the inactivated vaccine, compared with six in the negative controls (P=0˙05) and five in the group given the live vaccine. The mean virus excretion titres after the challenge were not significantly different between the groups. There was little seroconversion before the challenge, but six of the seven calves in the group given the inactivated vaccine showed significant seroconversion within two weeks after the challenge, compared with only one calf in each of the other two groups (P=0˙015).