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Antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in Canada
  1. J. D. W. Philippa1,
  2. B. E. E. Martina1,
  3. T. Kuiken1,
  4. M. W. G. Van de Bildt1,
  5. A. D. M. E. Osterhaus1,
  6. F. A. Leighton2,
  7. P. Y. Daoust3,
  8. O. Nielsen4,
  9. M. Pagliarulo5,
  10. H. Schwantje6,
  11. T. Shury7 and
  12. R. van Herwijnen8
  1. 1 Institute of Virology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  2. 2 Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
  3. 3 University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada
  4. 4 Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  5. 5 Université du Québec à Montréal, Toxicologie de l'environement, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  6. 6 Biodiversity Branch, Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  7. 7 Banff National Park, Banff, Alberta, Canada
  8. 8 European Veterinary Laboratory, Woerden, The Netherlands


Antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [CAV-2], feline herpesvirus [FHV], phocine herpesvirus [PHV-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [DMV], phocine distemper virus [PDV], parainfluenza virus type 3 [P13], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [DRV], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, Borrelia burgdorferi and Toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals, including cougars (Felis concolor), lynxes (Felis lynx), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), fishers (Martes pennanti), wolverines (Gulo gulo), wolves (Canis lupus), black bears (Ursus americanus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), which had been collected at several locations in Canada between 1984 and 2001. Antibodies to a number of viruses were detected in species in which these infections have not been reported before, for example, antibodies to cav-2 in walruses, to pdv in black bears, grizzly bears, polar bears, lynxes and wolves, to DMV in grizzly bears, polar bears, walruses and wolves, to P13 in black bears and fishers, and to DRV in belugas and walruses.

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