A five-month-old, female Japanese domestic shorthair cat with proportionate dwarfism developed neurological disorders, including ataxia, decreased postural responses and generalised body and head tremors, at between two and five months of age. Leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis with abnormal cytoplasmic vacuolations was observed. The concentration of GM2-ganglioside in its cerebrospinal fluid was markedly higher than in normal cats, and the activities of β-hexosaminidases A and B in its leucocytes were markedly reduced. On the basis of these biochemical data, the cat was diagnosed antemortem with GM2-gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease). The neurological signs became more severe and the cat died at 10 months of age. Histopathologically, neurons throughout the central nervous system were distended, and an ultrastructural study revealed membranous cytoplasmic bodies in these distended neurons. The compound which accumulated in the brain was identified as GM2-ganglioside, confirming GM2-gangliosidosis. A family study revealed that there were probable heterozygous carriers in which the activities of leucocyte β-hexosaminidases A and B were less than half the normal value. The Sandhoff-like disease observed in this family of Japanese domestic cats is the first occurrence reported in Japan.