A cross-sectional survey of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep, goats and cattle in Kosovo was made in January 2001. A total of 12,000 serum samples, from 7941 cattle, 3548 sheep and 511 goats, were screened using the Rose Bengal test. Doubtful and positive results were further tested with competitive and indirect ELISAs. The overall serological prevalences derived from the samples positive to all three tests, were 6.26 per cent (95 per cent confidence intervals [CI] 5.5 to 7.1 per cent) for sheep, 7.24 per cent (5.3 to 9.8 per cent) for goats and 0–58 per cent (0.43 to 0.77 per cent) for cattle. The survey covered 26 of the 29 municipalities and showed that brucellosis was widely but unevenly distributed throughout the province. Seropositive animals were found in 25 per cent (19 to 32 per cent) of 162 villages surveyed. The risk of cattle being infected on holdings where both cattle and sheep were kept was greater, with a risk ratio of 4.6 (2.2 to 9.6), than on holdings where only cattle were kept. Brucella melitensis probably predominates as the cause of brucellosis in ruminants in the province of Kosovo.