A case-control study was made of Norwegian dairy herds with high and low herd levels of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. A high proportion of the herds had a considerable number of seropositive cows, and environmental and management factors were examined for possible associations with the high serological levels of antibodies. The most important appeared to be: geographical location, red deer (Cervus elaphus) gaining access to the pastures for cattle, the observation of wild birds in the feed storage, and herds sharing common pasture with other herds of cattle. However, diagnostic tests showed that none of the animals in the case herds was infected with M a paratuberculosis.
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