Histopathological and bacteriological examinations were performed on 178 brains from Sardinian sheep which were showing neurological signs. The sheep represented the total number of sheep with neurological syndromes submitted for diagnostic investigations over a three-year period in Sardinia. Scrapie was detected in 57 cases, cerebrocortical necrosis in 25, intoxication by a typical Mediterranean plant (Cistus species) was suspected in 25, coenurosis was detected in 11 cases, Listeria monocytogenes in eight cases and focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in six cases. Non-suppurative inflammatory changes were observed in three of the brains and suppurative changes were noted in two. Lesions restricted to the spinal cord were found in three cases. In the remaining 38 cases there were no significant neuropathological changes.