Four immunisation protocols based on inactivated and attenuated commercially available marker vaccines for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were compared. The first group of calves were vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine administered intranasally and an inactivated vaccine injected subcutaneously, four weeks apart; the second group were vaccinated twice with the attenuated vaccine, first intranasally and then intramuscularly; the third group were vaccinated twice subcutaneously with the inactivated vaccine; and the fourth group were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with the attenuated vaccine. A control group of calves were not vaccinated. The cellular and humoral immune responses were highest in the two groups which received at least one injection of the inactivated vaccine. Virological protection was observed in all the vaccinated groups after a challenge infection and reactivation by treatment with dexamethasone, but the calves which received one dose of the inactivated vaccine as a booster or two doses of the inactivated vaccine excreted significantly less of the challenge virus than the calves which were vaccinated only with the attenuated preparation.