The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in France was assessed by means of a serological survey of suckling beef cattle, using an ELISA. The survey included 824 randomly selected herds in eight French counties and a total of 32,197 animals more than one year old. In each county, the number of herds tested was determined statistically on the basis of the hypothesis that about 40 per cent of herds are infected. The proportion of herds containing at least one infected animal ranged from 28 to 90 per cent depending on the county. Among the 32,197 sera tested, the animal infection rate ranged between 2 per cent and 13 per cent. In infected herds, the average number of positive animals per herd was between 10 and 20 per cent, and the infection was unevenly distributed among the areas tested.