The pharmacokinetic behaviour of ivermectin was investigated in adult llamas (Lama glama) by using high performance liquid chromatography with a lower limit of quantification of 2 ng/ml to measure its concentration in serum. Llamas were treated with one of three commercial formulations (injectable, pour-on or oral paste) at dosages recommended by the manufacturer, or with an experimental injectable sustainedrelease formulation. In five llamas given 1 per cent ivermectin subcutaneously at 200 μg/kg the median peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 3 ng/ml and the area under the serum concentration-time curve (Auc) was 13-5 ng.day/ml. In six llamas treated topically with 0-5 per cent ivermedin pour-on at 500 μg/kg Cmax was 2-5 ng/ml or less and the AUC was 7.75 ng.day/ml or less. In seven llamas with measurable concentrations of ivermectin, the median times to peak serum concentration (tmax) were six days after subcutaneous injection and seven days after treatment with the pour-on formulation. In six llamas, the serum concentration of ivermectin remained less than 2 ng/ml for 124 hours after treatment with a 1-87 per cent oral paste at 200 μg/kg. In five llamas treated subcutaneously with 25 per cent ivermectin sustainedrelease microspheres at 1500 μg/kg, the median Cmax was 5 ng/ml and the median AUC was 224 ng.day/ml.
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