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Echocardiography of the normal bovine heart: technique and ultrasonographic appearance
  1. U. Braun, DrMedVet1,
  2. T. Schweizer, DrMedVet1 and
  3. N. Pusterla, DrMedVet1
  1. 1 Clinic of Veterinary Internal Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland

Abstract

Fifty-one clinically healthy cows were examined ultrasonographically from the third and fourth intercostal spaces on both sides of the thorax. A 3.0 MHz transducer was used and the heart was examined in the caudal long, caudal short and cranial long axes on the right side, and in the caudal and cranial long axes on the left side. In each position the optimal transducer orientation and the images of the structures were recorded. In the caudal long axis view of the heart on the right (transducer positioned at the fourth intercostal space), all four chambers were visible with the transducer positioned 8 to 10 cm dorsal to the level of the olecranon. The left ventricular outflow tract, consisting of the aortic valve and ascending aorta, were visible in the same position with the transducer rotated 10 to 400 clockwise. In the caudal short axis view of the heart on the right, the left and right ventricles were visible in cross-section with the transducer held at right angles to the ribs in the fourth intercostal space, 3 to 6 cm dorsal to the olecranon and tipped slightly dorsally. In the cranial long axis view of the heart on the right, the right ventricular outflow tract, consisting of the pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery, was visible in the third intercostal space, 8 to 10 cm dorsal to the olecranon with the transducer angled craniodorsally and rotated 10 to 20° clockwise. In the caudal long axis view of the heart on the left, the left and right ventricles and the left ventricular outflow tract were visible with the transducer placed in the fourth intercostal space. In the cranial long axis view on the left, the right ventricular outflow tract was visible.

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