Seven dogs with non-regenerative anaemia were diagnosed as having myelofibrosis on the basis of the presence of collagen and increased deposits of reticulin fibre in the haemopoietic spaces of bone marrow core biopsies. A scoring system was used to assess the cellularity of the marrow and the amounts of collagen, reticulin and haemosiderin present. These scores, together with the haematological findings, were compared with the dogs' responses to treatment and their outcome. Treatment consisted of blood transfusions, where required, and anabolic steroids and corticosteriods. Three dogs deteriorated and were euthanased within three months of diagnosis, but the other four recovered fully. There was no correlation between the collagen and reticulin scores, or the degree of anaemia and the outcome, but the four dogs which recovered all had a macrocytosis when first examined. There was no evidence of an underlying lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative disease in any of the seven cases.