An outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was detected in Botswana in 1995 after more than half a century of freedom from the disease. Lung tissues, pleural fluids, nasal swabs and serum samples were examined in laboratories in Botswana, South Africa and Namibia and the findings were confirmed in Italy. The disease was confirmed as CBPP from the gross and histopathological changes in the lungs of affected animals and by the culture of the agent of CBPP, Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, small colony variant (MmmSC). These findings were supported by the demonstration of specific complement-fixing antibodies and the production of polymerase chain reaction products of MmmSC.
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