A total of 76 cows from seven herds with an ultrasonographically visible corpus luteum at routine herd fertility examinations were treated with prostaglandin F2α. The sizes of the cavities of all the follicles on both ovaries with a diameter greater than 5 mm were measured. The cows were observed for signs of oestrus over the following six days and the time to onset of oestrus was recorded. Milk samples collected when the prostaglandin was administered and at oestrus were assayed for milk progesterone concentration. The herd of origin, lactation number, body condition score, days after calving at the time of examination and the total number of follicles when the prostaglandin was administered were not found to have any correlation with time to oestrus. Seventy-three of the 76 cows had milk progesterone concentrations consistent with active luteal tissue when the prostaglandin was administered, and 33 of them were observed in oestrus and had low milk progesterone concentration within six days. The mean time to the onset of oestrus was significantly and inversely related to the size of the cavity of the smallest follicle with a diameter of more than 5 mm.
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