Four rottweiler pups from two litters developed severe progressive signs of spinal ataxia, cerebellar ataxia and tetraparesis/ paralysis. The signs started with ataxia of the pelvic limbs at seven to eight weeks of age and progressed to tetraparesis and paralysis within three to five weeks. Postmortem, a vacuolar neuronal disorder was found in the cerebellum, brainstem and the spinal cord, associated with Wallerian type degeneration in the brainstem, cerebellar peduncles and the medullary cord. Electron microscopy revealed empty membrane-bound vacuoles. Inmunohistochemistry for PrPSc was negative. The disorder differs clinically and pathologically from other neurological disorders in the breed and a new (familial) neurological disorder in the rottweiler is suspected.