Mammary gland neoplasms in horses are uncommon and may initially be confused with mastitis. Masses from the mammary glands of two horses with chronic discharges were examined by cytology and histopathology. Both masses were diagnosed as papillary ductal adenocarcinomas with extensive intraductal and intralobular involvement and only focal infiltration of the adjacent stroma. Complementary immunohistochemical studies were made of both fresh and formalin-fixed tumour tissue, and attempts were made to assess the steroid receptor status of fresh tissue biochemically to assess the possibility of hormonal treatment as an adjunct to surgery. The results of these tests for oestrogen and progesterone receptors were negative.