The semen quality, plasma testosterone concentrations and ultrasonographic changes were studied for up to 20 weeks after the unilateral vasectomy of two adult goats and two rams, and the gross and histological changes were examined post mortem. An intact ram and an intact goat served as controls. There was a marked decrease in the sperm concentration and the total numbers of sperm per ejaculate in both species. However, there seemed to be no effect on ejaculatory volume, mass motility and individual motile sperm, percentages of dead and abnormal sperm and plasma concentrations of testosterone. Ultrasonographically, the epididymal tail lost its characteristic heterogeneous texture and appeared enlarged. Anechoic masses, representing sperm granulomata, were visible within the epididymal tail of both the rams, and the epididymal head of one of the goats and at the cut end of the vas deferens in the other. They were observed as early as four to six weeks after surgery and their nature was confirmed post mortem. The sequential ultrasonographic changes in the testis and the epididymis are described.