Capripox vaccine (strain 0240) caused severe generalised skin reactions in vaccinated dairy cattle in two herds, whereas beef cattle did not develop reactions. All the reacting animals developed lumpy skin disease-like lesions. The incidence of skin lesions in first-lactation cows in herd A was 22.9 per cent and in herd B 29.3 per cent, mainly in the post-calving period. In older cows, the incidence was 10 per cent in herd A and 12.4 per cent in herd B. In herd B the high-yielding lactating cows were the most severely affected. There was a decrease of 3.5 per cent in milk production in each herd over a period of 12 days, and six first calving animals (3.5 per cent) and six cows (1.5 per cent) were slaughtered. A capripox virus was isolated from the animals with severe lesions, and was also demonstrated by electron microscopy. The histopathological lesions were similar to those of lumpy skin disease. The extent of the lesions appeared to be stress-related and, to a lesser degree, correlated with age and breed.