Selenium and vitamin E concentrations were measured in the blood sera of 287 cows in 91 herds. Herds with chronic mastitis and muscle diseases had significantly lower selenium concentrations (10.4 +/- 5.26 and 11.7 +/- 8.63 micrograms/litre serum, respectively) than healthy control herds (17.7 +/- 15.00 micrograms/litre). The selenium concentrations in herds with low fertility did not differ from control herds. The vitamin E concentrations were similar in all the herds. Supplementation of the mineral mixture with 20 mg sodium selenite and 2 g vitamin E/kg on 15 farms with a deficient selenium supply increased the selenium concentrations in the blood within two months in 12 of the herds. The vitamin E concentrations were hardly influenced by the supplementation.