Inflammation within the middle ear cavity was recognised in 62 of the ears of 42 dogs with chronic otitis externa and otitis media, after biopsy or necropsy of the middle ear. The pathological changes in the middle ear resembled those reported in other species or after the experimental induction of otitis media in dogs. Perforations in the tympanic membrane were rarely found; on the contrary, the membrane was often thickened. However, the question of whether a perforation in the tympanic membrane must occur before otitis externa can extend to otitis media was not resolved.
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